Hydrocarbons are increasingly more difficult to find because reservoirs are often located in geologically complex areas. The geologic complexity has motivated a significant paradigm shift from time imaging towards the extensive use of seismic depth imaging. Depth imaging improves the definition of the structural and stratigraphic frameworks and provide a better assessment and mitigation of risk in E&P.
The goal of this course is for the participant to gain an understanding of the basic concepts and practical aspects used in building velocity models and seismic images in depth in an intuitive manner. The participant will also be exposed to depth imaging practices currently in use by geophysicists and geoscientists through the description of workflows illustrated with synthetic and field data examples. The theoretical content is kept to a minimum required, in order to emphasize the practical aspects.
This course has two main segments. In the first segment, we will understand the basic concepts behind the velocity model building and depth migration tools commonly employed in depth imaging. In the second segment, we will learn how to use these tools for building velocity models and produce seismic images in depth using practical work flows for a variety of complex geologic scenarios.
The general contents of the course are:
- Introduction to the course
- Seismic migration fundamentals
- Understanding seismic velocities
- Estimation of seismic velocities and anisotropic parameters for depth imaging
- Seismic data conditioning for depth imaging
- Isotropic and anisotropic velocity model building and imaging in depth
- Optimization of seismic images for a more reliable geologic interpretation
- Overview of emerging velocity model building and imaging methods
- Describe the differences between time and depth imaging.
- Discuss basic acquisition parameters influencing the quality of the seismic images.
- Differentiate and select between depth migration methods.
- Recognize the limitations of the seismic data to produce optimum seismic images.
- Describe velocity estimation methods required for specific exploration problems.
- Explain the impact of velocity anisotropy on the quality of depth images and its effect on the spatial positioning of geological structures and well ties.
- Define and/ or choose depth imaging workflows for specific E&P scenarios.
- Judge the quality of seismic depth images.
- Effectively communicate about emerging depth imaging methods and technology
Ruben D. Martinez is a Petroleum Geoscience Consultant and instructor with Reservoir Geoscience, LLC.. He has been active in the seismic industry for 40 years.
Martinez was associated with Geophysical Service Inc. (GSI) as R&D Reservoir Geophysicist, Halliburton Geophysical Services (HGS) and Western Geophysical as Senior Research Geophysicist, AGI as director of Seismic Reservoir Characterization and Petroleum GeoServices (PGS) as Manager Signal Processing R&D, VP Processing R&D, VP Seismic Processing Technology, Global Chief Geophysicist I&E and Chief Geophysicist I&E NSA. His responsibilities in PGS included directing global R&D and software commercialization of processing and imaging technologies. As Chief Geophysicist, he was responsible for the supervision and quality assurance of depth imaging projects, customer liaison, the promotion of best practices and the commercialization and use of high technology.
Martinez is author and co-author of more than 70 technical papers published and/or presented at international conferences and 12 patents on seismic data acquisition, processing and imaging. He has also made professional technical presentations in more than 40 countries and has taught numerous courses and conducted seminars and workshops on seismic processing and imaging. In 2005, he was invited to present the annual Milton B. Dobrin lecture at the University of Houston. He is currently an instructor of the Continuing Education Program of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG).
Martinez was the recipient of the 2014 Mexican Association of Exploration Geophysicists (AMGE) geophysics award for life-long achievements to geophysics. He earned a BSc in Geophysics from the Instituto Politécnico Nacional (México), MSc in Geophysics from the Colorado School of Mines and a PhD in Geosciences from the University of Texas at Dallas. He is a member of the SEG, EAGE, GSH, AAPG and AMGE.