Members

CSEG Bylaws

The original Bylaws were registered with the Registrar of Companies on August 8, 1977. The current Bylaws were ratified February 23, 2016.

Bylaws of the Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists

ARTICLE I – NAME

The society shall be called the "Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists" and may also be referred to as the "Society" and have the alphabetic abbreviation of CSEG. The Society came into being as a chartered section of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (abbreviated to SEG) on January 24th 1952.


ARTICLE II – CORPORATE SEAL

The Society may, but need not; have a corporate seal, and the use or non-use of a corporate seal shall not affect the validity, record ability, or enforceability of a document or an act. If the Society has a corporate seal, the use of the seal by the Society on a document is not require


ARTICLE III - MEMBERSHIP

Section 1 - Classes of Membership

Membership in the Society shall consist of Honorary Members, Active Members, Student Members and Corporate Members.

Section 2 - Honorary Membership

Honorary Membership may be granted by the Executive Committee to any person who in the unanimous opinion of the Committee on Honours and Awards and the Executive Committee is considered worthy of such honour by reason of unusual service to the Society or outstanding work in the field of geophysics. Honorary members shall be elected for life and shall enjoy all privileges of the Society. They shall be eligible to hold any office, to vote on all matters submitted to the membership, and to petition the Executive Committee on any matter.

Section 3 - Active Membership

Active Membership may be granted to any person engaged or interested in the geophysical profession.

Section 4 - Corporate Membership

Corporate Membership may be granted to any Company having an active interest in supporting the objectives of the Society. Corporate members shall enjoy all privileges of the Society except that they shall not hold office nor shall they endorse applications for any class of membership, nor vote on any matters.

Section 5 - Student Membership

Student Membership may be granted to any Student having an active interest in supporting the objectives of the Society. Student members shall enjoy all privileges of the Society except that they shall not hold office, nor shall they endorse applications for any class of membership, nor vote on any matters.

Section 6 - Election to Membership

An applicant for election to Active membership shall submit to the Society an application together with dues for one year. The application shall be endorsed by three Active or Honorary Members of the Society in good standing who are personally acquainted with the applicant. All applications for membership in the Society must be approved by a majority of the Executive Committee. When an applicant has been approved, the Director of Communications shall notify the new member in writing. Each new member shall receive all available issues of the Society's Recorder for the year in which they make their initial payment of dues.

The Executive Committee shall publish the names of all new members in the next issue of the CSEG Recorder following approval of their applications.

The Executive committee may waive the requirement of references from members of the society for Geographical or other reasons, if the applicant is otherwise eligible and furnishes other satisfactory references. Active and Associate Members of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists and of the European Association of Exploration Geophysicists may apply for membership in the Society and the requirement of endorsement by three sponsors shall be waived.


ARTICLE IV - CODE OF ETHICS

Membership of any class shall be contingent upon conformance with the established principles of business ethics. As an elaboration of these established principles of business ethics, the following Code of Ethics is enunciated. In order to maintain the dignity of your chosen discipline, it shall be every member's duty to:

  1. Conduct your activity in the spirit of fidelity to clients and employers, fairness to employees and contractors within the context of personal honour.
  2. Treat as confidential your knowledge of the business affairs, geophysical or geological information, or technical processes of clients or employers when their interests require secrecy.
  3. Inform a client or employer of any business connections, interests, or affiliations, which might influence your judgement or impair the disinterested quality of your services.
  4. Accept financial or other compensation for a particular service from one source only, except with the full knowledge and consent of all interested parties.
  5. Refrain from associating yourself with, or knowingly to allow the use of your name by, an enterprise of questionable character.
  6. Advertise only in a manner consistent with the dignity of the Society, to refrain from using any improper or questionable methods of soliciting work and to decline to pay or to accept compensation for work secured by such improper or questionable methods.
  7. Refrain from using unfair means to win advancement and to avoid injuring unfairly or maliciously, directly or indirectly, another member's reputation, business, or chances of employment.
  8. Co-operate in encouraging and sustaining the geophysical community network by the interchange of general information and experience with your fellow members and with students and also with contributions to the work of technical societies, schools of applied science and the technical press.
  9. Interest yourself in the public welfare and to be ready to apply your special knowledge, skill, experience and training on the public's behalf for the benefit of humankind.

Any member may for the good of the Society be suspended or expelled from the Society at any time as set forth under ARTICLE V of the Bylaws.


ARTICLE V - RESIGNATION AND EXPULSION OF MEMBERS

Section 1 - Resignation of Members

Any member of the society may resign at any time by submitting their resignation in writing to the Executive Committee. Any member who so resigns shall cease to have any rights in the society and shall cease to incur further indebtedness to the society. Any person who has resigned under this section may be reinstated by majority vote of the Executive Committee subject to the payment of any outstanding dues and obligations which were incurred prior to the date when he ceased to be a member of the Society.

Section 2 - Expulsion of Members

Any member who, after being granted a hearing by the Executive Committee, shall be found guilty of a violation of the established principles in the Code of Ethics listed in article IV, shall be asked to resign from the Society by unanimous vote of the Executive Committee. The decision of the Executive Committee in all matters pertaining to the interpretation and execution of the provisions of this section shall be final.


ARTICLE VI - DIRECTORS AND THEIR DUTIES

Section 1 - Officers

The elected Directors of the Society shall be:
1.1 President
1.2 Vice President
2.1 Director of Finance
2.2 Director of Communications
2.3 Director of Educational Services
2.4 Director of Member Services

Position 1.1 and 1.2 are one year terms and the Vice President shall succeed the President after one year, then becoming Past President for a total commitment of 3 years on the Executive. Positions 2.1 through 2.4 are 2 year terms, the first year as "Assistant Director", and year 2 as "Director". Elections will be held annually for positions 1.2 to 2.4 where the positions 2.1 through 2.4 would be called "Assistant Director" for those newly elected Officers. Additionally, the Officers shall appoint Recorder and Website Editors.

Section 2 - Election of Directors

All Directors of the society shall be elected annually from among the Active, Retired, Unemployed or Honorary Members of the Society in good standing, by means of a secret ballot in the following manner:

There shall be a Committee on Nominations consisting of the President who shall be Chairman, and the two most recent available Past-Presidents. The Committee shall nominate one or more candidates from among the Active or Honorary Members of the Society in good standing, for each office or post to be filled, having first secured the consent of all candidates nominated.

The report of the Committee on Nominations shall be mailed to each member in order that additional nominations may be solicited before the closing date for nominations. Such additional nominations shall have the consent of the candidates nominated, shall be signed by at least five members of the Society, and shall be submitted to the Director of Communications. Nominations shall be closed on the 1st day of November prior to the Annual Meeting.

Election shall be by secret ballot, mailed either by post mail or electronic mail to each member of the Society after the closing date of nominations, and not later than the 15th day of December prior to the Annual Meeting. Only those ballots postmarked not later than January 15th and received by the 20th day of January, or by 24:00 hours on January 15th if voting is done electronically, prior to the annual Meeting shall be counted. The President shall cast their vote only when necessary to break a tie. Each Member voting may cast one vote for each Officer, and the candidate receiving the greatest number of valid votes cast for an office shall be declared elected to that office.

The President shall appoint a Committee of three tellers who shall be responsible for obtaining the ballots from the Director of Communications and counting them not later than the 23rd day of January prior to the Annual Meeting. If votes are received electronically, the CSEG will contract an agent to collect and tabulate those votes and will issue the results to the Chairman of the committee of Tellers no later than 23rd day of January. The Chairman of the committee of Tellers shall report the results of the election to the President who shall immediately advise all candidates.

The newly elected Directors shall attend a meeting of the council immediately prior to the Annual Meeting, and shall be installed in their offices at the Annual Meeting, at which time they shall assume their duties.

The President and Vice President shall hold office for one year, with the Vice President succeeding the President. The other Officers shall hold office for a nominal period of two years, and no member shall be eligible for election to the same office for more than two consecutive terms. In case of a vacancy in any office, other than the President’s, the Executive Committee shall select a successor to serve the remainder of the incumbent’s term of the vacant office.

Section 3 - Duties of President

The President shall preside at meetings of the Society and of the Executive Committee and Council. They shall appoint such Committees as are required for the purposes of the Society, and shall delegate members to represent the Society. Jointly with the Director of Communications, the President shall sign all written contracts and other obligations of the Society. The President may delegate in writing such authority, as is required, to other Officers. In the temporary absence of other Officers the President shall assume their duties or delegate them.

Section 4 - Duties of Vice-President

The Vice President shall assist the President in their duties and shall assume the office of President in case of a vacancy in that office, and shall assume the duties of President for such period or periods as that Officer for any reason may be unable to perform their official duties. The Vice President succeeds the President after the end of a term as Vice President.

Section 5 - Duties of Director of Educational Services

The Director of Educational Services shall be responsible for arranging the technical and the continuing education programs of the Society including the technical luncheons and the Continuing Education committee; shall have authority to appoint such assistants as may be required; shall perform other duties as directed by the Executive Committee.

Section 6 - Duties of Director of Communications

The Director of Communications shall maintain a complete list of the membership of the Society; ensure that the minutes of all meetings of the Society and Executive Committee are kept; ensure the mailing and posting via the Website of advance notices of meetings to all members; notify the members by mail of proposed amendments to the Bylaws; shall transact any other business ordered by the Executive Committee. The Director of Communications shall have custody of the seal and shall be responsible for its safekeeping; and shall see that the seal is affixed to all documents requiring the seal of the Society. The Director of Communications shall also be responsible for regular and timely dissemination of information to the membership i.e. Recorder, Website.

Section 7 - Duties of Director of Finance

The Director of Finance shall collect all dues and other money receivable and shall make disbursements authorised by the Executive Committee. The Director of Finance shall report upon the condition of the Treasury at the Annual Meeting and at other times upon request of the Executive Committee. The Director of Finance shall, with the approval of the Executive Committee, appoint an auditor or auditors who shall audit the books of the Society and its committees. The Auditor's Report shall cover the financial year of the Society, hereby defined as January 1st to December 31st, and shall be delivered to the Executive Committee before January 31st following the end of the financial year. The Director of Finance shall be responsible for updates to the existing budget, and prepare a budget for the ensuing year. It shall be presented to the Executive Committee by December 31st of the current year.

Section 8 - Duties of Director of Member Services

The Director of Member Services shall be accountable for promoting individual and corporate memberships, conducting the annual membership and corporate membership drive, all social/recreational committees of the CSEG. The Director of Member Services shall also be responsible for organising an annual Volunteer Appreciation Event and shall perform duties as directed by the Executive Committee.

Section 9 - Duties of Assistant Directors

The Assistant Director is to act as an understudy to the incumbent, as well as assist that individual with his duties as deemed necessary.

Section 10 – Removal of Directors

The Directors may, by at least two-thirds of the vote cast at a regular directors meeting remove any Director before the expiration of that Director's term of office, and may, by a majority of the votes cast at a meeting, appoint any other person to act for the remainder of the term.


ARTICLE VII - COUNCIL

Section 1 - Designation of Council

Section 1 - Designation of Council The Council of the Society shall consist of the Officers, the Officers elect, the immediate Past President, the Section Representatives to the Society of Exploration Geophysicists, the Section Representatives from the Society's Sections as described in ARTICLE XVI, and the Recorder/Website Editors.

Section 2 - Powers of Council

The Council shall be the governing body of the Society and except as otherwise herein provided, shall have full control and management of the affairs and funds of the Society.

Section 3 - Meetings of Council

A meeting of the Council shall be held at the call and under the chairmanship of the President immediately before the Annual Meeting of the Society. At this meeting the Council may review the reports from the Officers and committees, and the activities of the Society for the past year. The Council shall conduct any necessary business and issue instructions or recommendations to any Officer or committee, except as otherwise herein provided. All committee chairmen may attend this meeting with the privilege to speak but not to vote. At the call of the President or a majority of the Council members, and after written notice to all Council members, the Council may meet at any time.

A quorum at any meeting of the Council shall consist of two-thirds of all Council members. Unless otherwise provided by the Bylaws, all actions by the Council shall require a majority vote of the members present.


ARTICLE VIII- EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETINGS AND DUTIES

Section 1 - Designation of Executive Committee

The Executive Committee shall consist of the Directors, and the immediate Past-President as well as the Section Representatives to the Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

Section 2 - Powers of the Executive Committee

When the Council is not in session the Executive Committee shall have full authority, subject only to prior instructions by the Council, to exercise all powers of the Council.

Neither the Executive Committee of the Society, nor any of its members, shall have the power to borrow money, or expend money in excess of those funds in the Society's current accounts, unless approved by a three fourths vote of the members present at any general meeting of the Society membership called on due notice and for that purpose.

Section 3 - Meetings of the Executive

Meetings of the Executive Committee shall be held monthly insofar as possible, at the call of the President. A quorum at any meeting of the Executive Committee shall consist of a majority of the members of the Executive Committee. All actions of the Executive Committee shall require a majority vote of the members present, except as otherwise herein provided. The Managing Director is non-voting, and in attendance at the pleasure of the President.

Section 4 - Duties of the Executive Committee

Section 4 - Duties of the Executive Committee The Executive Committee shall transact all business of the Society not otherwise herein specifically provided for. It shall elect all members to the Society; shall authorize all expenditures; shall authorize the use of the seal; shall direct investments of the Society funds; shall establish and supervise publications; shall approve and recommend all proposals for special assessments; shall have the power to review all actions and appointments by the Officers.

Section 5 - Remuneration of Executive Committee

No Officer of the Society shall receive any remuneration for their services as an Officer unless specifically provided for in the Bylaws.


ARTICLE IX- SOCIETY MEETINGS

Section 1 - Annual and Special Meetings

The Annual Meeting shall be held before the end of March at a time and place designated by the Executive Committee. An Annual Report, including the reports of Officers and committees, shall be prepared by the President and distributed to all members prior to the Annual Meeting.

Special meetings may be called at any time by the President of the Society, or by a majority vote of the Executive Committee.

Notification for members for both an Annual or Special meeting will performed by email and the CSEG Recorder, not less than twenty-one (21) days prior to the scheduled date of the meetin

At Annual and Special Meetings, five percent of eligible voters shall constitute a quorum, provided that the entire voting membership has been duly notified at least one week in advance of the meeting.

Section 2 - Technical Meetings

Meetings of the Society shall be held periodically at dates to be announced by the Executive Committee. The Executive Committee shall determine the time and place of meetings, and the nature of the technical program and entertainment.


ARTICLE X - DUES AND FINANCE

Section 1 - Dues

The annual dues for all membership categories of the Society shall be set from time to time by and at the discretion of the CSEG Executive Committee which amount shall include the cost of one subscription to the Society's Recorder. Honorary Members shall not be required to pay dues and shall receive the Recorder without charge.

Section 2 - Payment of Dues

Annual dues shall be payable in advance on January 1st of the calendar year. Notice of dues payable shall be mailed by the CSEG office staff in December of each year. Dues paid by applicants for membership during December will be considered in payment for the following year's dues. Any Active Member or Student Member, who fails to pay their dues by March 31, shall lose their membership in the society, and will not receive further information from the CSEG until current fees have been rendered.

A member who has forfeited their membership under the provisions of this Article may be reinstated by majority vote of the Executive Committee, subject to the payment of any outstanding dues and obligations which were incurred prior to the date when they ceased to be a member of the Society. No person who has ceased to be a member of the Society shall have any claim to any property or assets of the Society.

Section 3 - Audit

The books and accounts of the Director of Finance shall be audited as covered under Article VI, Section 7 of these Bylaws.

Section 4 - Inspection by Members

The books and records of the Society may be inspected by any member at any Annual Meeting or at any special meeting called for financial purposes.

Section 5 - Remuneration of Directors

Unless authorized at any meeting and after notice for same shall have been given, no director or member of the society shall receive any remuneration for his/her services.

Section 6 – Borrowing Powers

For the purpose of carrying out its objects, the society may borrow or raise or secure the payment of money in such manner as it thinks fit, but this power shall be exercised only under the authority of the society, and in no case shall be allowed without the sanction of a special resolution of the society.


ARTICLE XI - PUBLICATIONS

Section 1 - Editors

The Executive Committee will appoint Recorder and Website Editors. The Recorder Editor(s) will be responsible for publication of the Society's Recorder, including technical content and reporting financial projections. The Recorder and Website Editors will report to the Director of Communications who will sit in an advisory role on those respective committees.

Section 2 - CSEG Recorder

The CSEG Recorder shall be the medium for publishing notices of meetings, notice of amendments to the Bylaws, and the names of new members. All members of the Society shall be presumed to have due notice of all Society matters published in the CSEG Recorder.

Section 3 - CSEG Website

The CSEG Website shall, in conjunction with the Recorder, be a medium for publishing notices and informing members. The Website Editor(s), reporting through the Director of Communications shall be responsible for the content and the direction of the Website committee in updating the society's Website of all events designated by the Executive Committee, other Committees and the Managing Director as well as all the advertising to be posted on the Website.


ARTICLE XII- COMMITTEES

Section 1 - Appointment of Committees

The President may at any time appoint committees for such purposes, as they may deem fit to further the purposes of the Society. Except as otherwise provided in the Bylaws, the term of all committees appointed by the President shall expire September 15th of each year.

Section 2 - Duties of the Chairman

The Chairman of each committee may appoint additional members as they see fit and shall be responsible, along with the executive committee, for succession planning for that committee. The Chairman shall prepare a report of his committee's activities which report shall be submitted to the President no later than December 31st of each year, and which shall be included in the Annual Report of the Society for the year.

The Chairman of each committee in which expenditures of funds are made shall close all committee books by December 1st of each year unless operations require otherwise, in which case, as soon as possible after planned events, reserving only such funds as are required to cancel unpaid current obligations, and those required to maintain the continuity of the committee, and shall deliver the books and remaining funds to the Director of Finance. The Chairman shall also prepare and submit to the Director of Finance by December 31st, a budget for the following year.


ARTICLE XIII - HONORS AND AWARDS

Section 1 - Committee on Honours and Awards

The Committee on Honours and Awards shall consist of the three most recent available Past-Presidents of the society. The senior member of the committee shall retire after the Annual Meeting. The current Past-President will serve as Chairman. In the event a committee member cannot serve for any reason, the President shall appoint a successor for all or part of the remaining term.

Section 2 - Procedures for Honours and Awards

The Committee on Honours and Awards shall review suggestions for new honours and awards. It shall recommend to the Executive Committee three months before the Annual Meeting, but no later than December 1st, the candidates for all established honours and awards of the Society, and for election to Honorary Membership, explaining the basis for its recommendations.

The Executive Committee members shall consider all such recommendations and shall vote on them before the last day of December prior to the Annual Meeting. Unanimous action by those voting shall be required for approval of the recommendations of the Committee on Honours and Awards.


ARTICLE XIV- ASSOCIATED OR AFFILIATED SOCIETIES

The Executive Committee/Council may arrange for association or affiliation of the Society with any duly organised groups or societies.

The terms of association or affiliation must provide that the society shall have the right to dissolve such association or affiliation at any time, subject only to the payment of any sums it may legally owe the association or affiliated group or society.


ARTICLE XV- REPRESENTATIVE TO OTHER SOCIETIES OR ORGANIZATIONS

Section 1 - Representation on Council of the SEG

The Society may be represented on the Council of the SEG as follows: One Section Representative if among it members there are not more than 75 Honorary Members and Active Members of the SEG in good standing, two Section Representatives if more than 75 and not more than 150, three Section Representatives if more than 150 and not more than 300, four Section Representatives if more than 300 and not more than 450, five Section Representatives if more than 450 and not more than 600, and extending the formula in the same manner, a section shall have one additional Section Representative for each additional 150 Active Members.

The President of the Society shall serve as Section Representative to the SEG. However, if the Society is entitled to two representatives, the President shall serve on the Council of the SEG for two years, and if entitled to three representatives the President and immediate Past-president shall serve on the Council of the SEG. If entitled to three representatives the President, the immediate Past-president and previous Past-president shall serve on the Council of the SEG. If the Society is entitled to more than three Section Representatives to the SEG or in the event that any duly-appointed Section Representative is unable or ineligible to serve on the Council of the SEG, the Executive Committee shall appoint Section Representatives to the SEG for one-year terms to the additional or vacant posts to be filled.

Section 2 - Other Societies

The Executive Committee/Council may provide for representation of the Society on the governing bodies of other societies or organisations with which arrangements have been made for association or affiliation.


ARTICLE XVI - SECTIONS

Section 1

Upon petition of 20 Active Members of the Society in good standing residing within appropriate distance of a central point, or sharing a common interest or problem, the Council may authorise the formation of a Section. The Council may decline to authorise the formation of a Section when in its judgement such an organisation would not be compatible with the interest of the Society.

Section 2

The Section shall adopt Bylaws, which must be approved by the Council of the Society and shall be consistent with the Bylaws of the Society. The Bylaws of the Section should include provisions that provide for its orderly dissolution and automatic disposition of its funds in the event the Section can no longer function in compliance with its Bylaws.

Section 3

The President of each Section shall represent that Section on the CSEG Council as Section Representative. The term of office of a Section Representative shall be one year. If a Section is entitled to two or three Section Representatives, as prescribed by the Bylaws, the Past-President and the prior Past-President of the Section shall fill these additional posts, respectively, serving additional terms. A Section Representative must be an Active Member in good standing. When a Section President, Past-President or prior Past-President is not eligible or otherwise is unable to serve on the Council, or when a Section is entitled to more than three Representatives, the Executive Committee of the Section shall be responsible for the selection of Representatives for one-year terms to the vacant or additional posts to be filled.

Section 4

The President of each Section shall represent that Section on the CSEG Council as Section Representative. The term of office of a Section Representative shall be one year. If a Section is entitled to two or three Section Representatives, as prescribed by the Bylaws, the Past-President and the prior Past-President of the Section shall fill these additional posts, respectively, serving additional terms. A Section Representative must be an Active Member in good standing. When a Section President, Past-President or prior Past-President is not eligible or otherwise is unable to serve on the Council, or when a Section is entitled to more than three Representatives, the Executive Committee of the Section shall be responsible for the selection of Representatives for one-year terms to the vacant or additional posts to be filled.

Section 5

If a Section Representative ceases to be a member of the Section they represent or is unable to perform their duties, the Executive Committee of the Section may appoint an Active Member of the society in good standing to fill the incumbent's term.

Section 6

Each Section shall provide the Director of Member Services of the Society with the names of its current Officers and the current version of its Bylaws. Annually each Section shall furnish the Director of Member Services with a count of the number of Active Members of the Society on the Section roster. For the latter purpose, the Section should count its members in good standing just prior to the date of renewal of annual Section Dues. In the event a Section does not provide its membership count to the Director of Member Services at least 30 days prior to the Annual Meeting, no more than one of the Representatives from the Section shall have the privilege of voting at the meeting of the Council.

Section 7

A Section will be designated as an inactive Section if the Section does not hold at least two technical sessions a year, or is unable to elect a full slate of Officers.

Section 8

An inactive Section will be designated a defunct Section by Council action if the Section is unable to regain active status in the one-year period following the date the Section is declared inactive.

Section 9

The Council may at any time dissolve affiliation with any Section for reasons it deems good and sufficient.


ARTICLE XVII - STUDENT SECTIONS

Section 1

Formation of a Student Section may be authorised by the Executive Committee, providing a petition is submitted by ten or more graduate or undergraduate students in residence and faculty advisor. Membership in the Society is recommended but not mandatory for the petitioners.

Section 2

A Student Section shall adopt Bylaws, which are consistent with the Bylaws of the Society. The Executive Committee shall approve their Bylaws before affiliation is granted.

Section 3

The Executive Committee or Council may at any time sever the affiliation with any Student Section.


ARTICLE XVIII- AMENDMENTS TO THE BYLAWS

Section 1

Amendments to these Bylaws may be proposed by any five members of the Society, by any Director of the Society, or by a constitutional committee appointed by the President. Bylaws may only be amended by special resolution of the membership.

Section 2

Any proposed amendment shall be reviewed by the Executive Committee, and, together with an expression of the Executive Committee's views thereon, shall be submitted to the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) in Tulsa, Oklahoma for approval. Upon approval from the SEG, the proposed amendments shall then be submitted to the entire membership of the CSEG. A three-fourths majority favourable vote of all Active, Honorary, Retired or Unemployed members present in person at a general meeting, or as a result of an electronic ballot sent to all eligible members, of which notice specifying the intention to propose the amendments as an extraordinary resolution has been duly given, shall be required for ratification of the amendment. All amendments shall be reported in the CSEG Recorder and/or posted on the CSEG website.


ARTICLE XIX- INTERPRETATION

In these Bylaws and in all amendments thereto, the singular shall include the plural, and the masculine shall include the feminine wherever the context will so permit and the circumstances require.