2017 Symposium Speakers
This year the CSEG Symposium will feature the following invited speakers, who have been chosen by the Symposium Committee from a collection of talk proposals submitted by open invitation. All talks contain new, unpublished material of a value oriented, case study nature. It is with great enthusiasm that we present the list of speakers. Please note that the presentation speaker order will be subject to change.
Microseismic interpretation of hydraulic fractures through numerical modeling and data integration: strain residual analysis
Neda Boroumand, PhD and David W. Eaton, PhD
University of Calgary
To answer the question “why and how did the hydraulic fractures(s) grow in a particular direction?”, a few procedures need to be considered: 1) geomechanical modeling, 2) numerical simulations and 3) data integration. The answer to this question is important because it forms decisions that lead to field development strategies for well placement, stage spacing and perforations strategies for optimized oil and gas production.
The content of this abstract is largely based on the research results presented in the first author’s PhD Thesis published in 2016. The thesis developed an integrated approach to getting more out of microseismic data, in particular, to characterize the reservoir, subsurface properties and the hydraulic fracture(s). An essential intent of this work is to demonstrate how microseismic data can be used in computer simulations of physical processes, specifically to aid in the understanding of the hydraulic fracture and the reservoir processes in more detail. An example is presented whereby the strain and stress regimes of an Earth model during hydraulic fracturing simulations are studied.
A three dimensional (3D) stress and flow numerical scheme is developed to study the microseismic observations with respect to deformation behavior associated with hydraulic fracturing. The simulated fracture in the earth model is calibrated in time and space to the observed microseismic geometries. A geomechanical interpretation, through parameter selection, is performed to explain how and why the fractured region deformed. The strain residual model results show the areas of deformation and identify the subsurface parameters that caused the deformation.
Dr. Neda Boroumand is a recent Geophysics graduate whose research focused on geomechanical modeling, numerical simulations and data integration for hydraulic fracturing processes in unconventional reservoirs. Her background is in acquisition, processing and interpretation of passive seismic data.
Fault Detection Using Principal Component Analysis of Seismic Attributes in the Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota, USA
Dr. John P. Castagna
University of Houston
Seismic fault detection using principal component analysis (PCA) is an effective method to interpret fault distribution and orientations in the Bakken Formation. The PCA fault attribute shows significantly different, and geologically more plausible, three-dimensional fault distributions than conventional seismic attributes, such as curvature and coherence. The PCA fault attribute has identified different fault patterns in the Upper, Middle and Lower Bakken members and the Threeforks Formation. Two distinct fault trends in approximately 40°-50° NE-SW and 50°-60° NW-SE directions are observed in the Bakken Formation in the study area and are apparent on strike and dip attributes derived from the PCA analysis. Fault cuts interpreted from missing well log sections correlate well with the PCA fault attribute. Seismically derived fault orientations correlate to borehole image log data in the horizontal wells. Crossing conjugate faults observed on the fault-dip attribute may result in widening of the faulted area and localized thinning of the rock sequence where the faults intersect, and could potentially enhance permeability along fault strike.
John P. Castagna specializes in exploration geophysics research and development. He is widely known for his work in direct hydrocarbon detection and reservoir characterization.
He joined ARCO's well logging research group in 1980. He served the company in a number of research, exploration, field-development and management positions. In 1982, he was named technical coordinator for Sonic Logging Research; in 1986, log analyst for Reservoir Engineering Services; in 1987, technical coordinator for Rock Physics Research; in 1988, director of Geoseismic Interpretation Research; and in 1989, manager of Seismic Analysis Research.
In 1990, he transferred to Vastar Resources where he was responsible for development an extension of major offshore Gulf of Mexico fields and exploration of surrounding acreage. He later joined ARCO International Oil and Gas Co., with responsibility for offshore China and Russia exploration.
Dr. Castagna returned to ARCO Research in 1995 and was assigned as visiting research scientist at the Geotechnology Research Institute of the Houston Advanced Research Center, where he was principal investigator for research projects funded by the Gas Research Institute, the Energy Research Clearing House and a consortium of energy companies. Also in 1995, he was named Distinguished Lecturer for the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG), delivering the fall lecture on "Applied AVO analysis: use and abuse of amplitude variation with offset." He has served the SEG in various other capacities including chairman of the Leading Edge editorial board, First Vice-President, and technical program chairman for the 2003 Annual Convention in Dallas. His book, Offset-Dependent-Reflectivity: Theory and Practice of AVO Analysis, is an SEG bestseller. He has also served as Associate Editor for Geophysics.
In 2000, Dr. Castagna founded Fusion Geophysical, a geophysical contractor specializing in integrated seismic analysis. In February, 2010, Dr. Castagna founded Lumina Geophysical, leading the industry in seismic spectral analysis, quantitative interpretation, and reservoir characterization.
Dr. Castagna is a graduate of Brooklyn College, where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in geology in 1976, and a master’s degree in high temperature geochemistry in 1981. He completed his doctoral degree in exploration geophysics at the University of Texas at Austin in 1983. He currently holds the Robert Sheriff Chair of Geophysics at the University of Houston.
His main technical interest is quantitative seismic analysis in exploration and reservoir characterization.
Understanding stratigraphic filtering effects on interpretation
Leila Douaouda Naili,
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Fred Hilterman is Chief Scientist for Geokinetics Data Processing and Integrated Reservoir Geosciences and is a Distinguished University Professor at the University of Houston (UH). He received a Ph.D. from Colorado School of Mines (CSM), worked at Mobil and then UH. In 1976, he founded the Seismic Acoustic Lab at UH which was a consortium supported by 45 oil and gas companies. In 1981, he co-founded Geophysical Development Corporation (GDC) and was VP of Development until GDC was bought by Geokinetics in 1998.
His services to the professional societies are many and include SEG DISC Instructor, Associate Editor of Geophysics, Chairman of TLE Editorial Board; and, both Technical and General Chairman of SEG Annual Meetings, SEG President, and Continuing Education lecturer since 1976.
He has received numerous awards including SEG Best Paper and Best Presentation Awards and SEG’s highest award, the Maurice Ewing Medal. CSM awarded him the Distinguished Alumni Medal in 2005 and the van Diest Gold Medal in 1971 for the significance of his PhD work on Kirchhoff wave theory.
Fred’s interests are in petrophysics, reservoir characterization, signal theory, and wave propagation.
Correlating rate of penetration and bit trips to 3D surface seismic data in the Mississippi Lime Play
Kurt J. Marfurt, Joseph Snyder, and Xuan Qi
The University of Oklahoma
While initially thought to be laterally homogeneous, operators quickly realized that unconventional resource plays can exhibit considerable geologic heterogeneity. Since this realization, 3D surface seismic analysis has played a significant role in identifying drilling hazards and sweet spots. Much less effort, however, has been invested in mapping the heterogeneity of the drilling process itself, where some zones drill faster, some slower, and still others result in costly casing trips to change the bit. Given the current low oil price, there is an increased need for efficiency and cost reduction in the drilling process. A method to better predict drilling speed could make a significant impact. We correlate the rate of penetration (ROP) as well as the number of trips to surface seismic measurements made over the heterogeneous Mississippi Lime resource play in Woods County, Oklahoma. Exploratory data analysis shows that geomechanical attributes of P-impedance, inverted-porosity, λρ and µρ and the geometric attribute curvedness have good correlations with ROP while texture attributes had good correlation to the number of trips. Using a modern Proximal Support Vector Machine t classifier, we were able to predict two classes of ROP (fast and slow) with a (blind test) confidence of 88% and the number of trips (one to four and more than four) with a confidence of 92%. Once calibrated the end product is a volumetric class model of the Mississippi Lime at each voxel to be used in future well planning.
Kurt J. Marfurt joined The University of Oklahoma in 2007 where he serves as the Frank and Henrietta Schultz Professor of Geophysics within the ConocoPhillips School of Geology and Geophysics. Marfurt’s primary research interest is in the development and calibration of new seismic attributes to aid in seismic processing, seismic interpretation, and reservoir characterization. Recent work has focused on applying coherence, spectral decomposition, structure-oriented filtering, and volumetric curvature to mapping fractures and karst with a particular focus on resource plays. Marfurt earned a Ph.D. in applied geophysics at Columbia University’s Henry Krumb School of Mines in New York in 1978 where he also taught as an Assistant Professor for four years. He worked 18 years in a wide range of research projects at Amoco’s Tulsa Research Center after which he joined the University of Houston for 8 years as a Professor of Geophysics and the Director of the Allied Geophysics Lab. He has received SEG best paper (for coherence), SEG best presentation (for seismic modeling) and as a coauthor with Satinder Chopra best SEG poster (one on curvature, one on principal component analysis), best AAPG technical presentation and with Roderick Perez-Altamar best paper in Interpretation. Marfurt also served as the EAGE/SEG Distinguished Short Course Instructor for 2006 (on seismic attributes). In addition to teaching and research duties at OU, Marfurt leads short courses on attributes for the SEG and AAPG, and currently serves as Editor in Chief of the AAPG/SEG Journal Interpretation.
BroadBand onshore: a case-history
In the last decade, so called “Broadband” data has become a standard in offshore seismic programs, but onshore acquisition has to some extend lagged behind the advances that have been seen in marine acquisition. In this paper we illustrate the potential of broadband data onshore through a case history, and outline all the stages of the survey through survey design, acquisition, processing, inversion to final interpretation and tie to wells. The importance of generating, recording and processing the low frequency portion of the spectrum correctly is illustrated, and we show how the extended low-frequency bandwidth improved the ability to invert the final data for acoustic impedance to get a better understanding of rock properties, and tie to wells. The survey was acquired targeting the Woodford Shale in the South Central Oklahoma Oil Province (SCOOP). We show that through the application of high-density acquisition, custom low-dwell vibroseis sweeps and a bandwidth preserving processing flow we were able to recover six octaves of usable seismic signal (from 2Hz) which could be used to generate an absolute inversion without the need for a seismic wavelet or low frequency model. Acquisition efficiency was improved by using a slip sweep technique, which allowed long sweeps and low frequencies to be utilized without introducing significant cost. The importance of understanding and correcting for phase effects at very low frequencies, including those introduced by the geophone, recording system, near surface and attenuation, amongst other things is shown to be critical. A final comparison of data inverted without the low frequencies demonstrates the value of broadband data, and shows that broadband onshore is entirely possible.
Dave Monk holds a PhD in Physics from Nottingham University in the UK, and is currently Director of Geophysics and a Distinguished Advisor at Apache Corporation. Having started his career on seismic crews in Nigeria he has subsequently been involved in seismic processing and acquisition in most parts of the world. Through all of this, he has retained his interest in developing innovative ways to acquire and process seismic data to improve final interpretation. Author of over 100 technical papers or articles and a number of patents, Monk has received “Best Paper” awards from the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (1992 and 2005) , the Canadian SEG (2002), and was recipient of the Hagedoorn Award from the European Association of Exploration Geophysics (1994).
Dave received honorary membership of the Geophysical Society of Houston in 2008 and Life membership of the SEG in 2009. He served as President of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) in 2012-2013.
Understanding qualitative and quantitative interpretation and the space in between
The current workflow for high-grading drill locations in unconventional reservoirs consists of estimating in-situ reservoir parameters and forecasting production. A model is developed that takes initial reservoir conditions and projects the effect hydraulic stimulation on matrix permeability or accessed reservoir rock and its relation to production. Lithology, porosity, crack density and organic content are a few of the reservoir parameters of interest that describe the in-situ conditions. Variations of these initial conditions are directly related to variations in production. Thus accurate estimates of the initial conditions are critical to forecasting production and maximizing unconventional assets.
The promise of quantitative interpretation is to predict reservoir parameters from seismic data. The reliability to which this can be achieved ranges from qualitatively (qi) assessing reservoir properties to quantitatively (QI) describing lithologic, porosity and fluid variations. Understanding where in the spectrum of predictability any project lies is a function of both inversion accuracy and reservoir elastic ambiguity. A workflow is described which determines to what level of detail geophysical predictions can be made from inversion products.
Unconventional quantitative interpretation is a two-step process: the process of inversion and the subsequent interpretation. A good inversion result can be achieved by an experienced geophysicist, matching seismic estimates of compressional and shear impedance to available well control. The error associated in the seismic estimate can be quantified and used in assessing inversion products. What is often overlooked is the inherent ambiguity in the relating elastic parameters to reservoir parameters, that the same combination of P and S impedance can represent two different lithology and porosity combinations. Accounting for this ambiguity enables a geophysicist to better identification of reservoir properties.
Marco Perez received his B.Sc. at McGill University before completing an M.Sc. in Geophysics at the University of Calgary. He started working at PanCanadian, later Encana, focusing on AVO, inversion and LMR analysis. After moving to Apache in 2007 Marco has continued to work with advanced geophysical techniques within the Exploration & Production Technology group. In 2016 Marco moved to Velvet Energy where he is currently the Technical Specialist Lead.
Extended poroelastic impedance with applications to an Alberta gas sand
Brian H. Russell
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Dr. Russell holds a B.Sc. from the University of Saskatchewan (1975), a M.Sc. from Durham University (1978), U.K., and a Ph.D. from the University of Calgary (2004), all in geophysics. He joined Chevron in Calgary as an exploration geophysicist in 1976 and subsequently worked for Teknica and Veritas before co-founding Hampson-Russell Software with Dan Hampson in 1987. Hampson-Russell is now a subsidiary of CGG, where Brian is Vice President, GeoSoftware and a CGG Fellow. Brian is involved in the research of new AVO, rock physics, inversion and attribute techniques as well as giving courses and talks throughout the world. He is a Past-President of both the SEG and Canadian SEG (CSEG) and has received Honorary Membership from both societies, as well as the Cecil Green Enterprise Award from SEG (jointly with Dan Hampson). He is currently Chairman of the Board of the Pacific Institute for the Mathematical Sciences (PIMS). He is also an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Geoscience at the University of Calgary and the University of Wyoming and is registered as a Professional Geophysicist (P.Geoph.) in Alberta.
Using buried receivers for multicomponent, time-lapse heavy oil imaging
Peter Vermeulen*, Guoping Li, Brion Energy; Hugo Alvarez, Peter Cary
Arcis Seismic Solutions/TGS
LXL Consulting Ltd.
Near-surface, low-velocity, heterogeneous layers can pose significant detrimental impacts on the quality of land seismic data. In Northern Alberta, a type of bog consisting of water and partially decomposed organic material, called muskeg, occurs at the surface. In areas where water drainage is poor this muskeg layer can become thick enough to attenuate some PP and most PS seismic waves. In this case, muskeg up to 8 m thick absorbed seismic signals which led to reducing high end frequencies by 30% and 80% respectively in the baseline PP and PS data sets. As a result, Brion Energy set out to experiment whether burying sources and receivers below the thick muskeg layer would improve reservoir imaging.
High resolution 3C seismic volumes and inversions are critical tools for reservoir characterization, development and SAGD surveillance in bitumen reservoirs around the Ft. McMurray area. Their value has been demonstrated by imaging: inter formation base of pay (Dimutrescu et al., 2014), flank water and oil saturation (Mayer et al, 2015), steam chambers and mobile bitumen (Gray et al., 2016; Zhang and Larson, 2016). Therefore, 3D and 4D joint inversion techniques were expected to form an integral part of the reservoir management strategy for Brion’s SAGD project.
While the program was being designed, a number of questions started to emerge. For example, we needed to determine what type of receivers were durable and reliable, how to install 3C receivers up to 9 m deep, whether the receiver orientation could be confirmed with minimal processing delay, whether un-cemented receivers would stay where planted, as well as the repeatability of results in both winter and summer conditions. Reaching out and engaging locally respected acquisition and processing experts proved instrumental in mitigating risk and adding measurable value to the project’s success.
In 2015, a time-lapse buried receiver 3C/2D seismic experiment was performed in the heavy oil area of NE Alberta, Canada. Digital and analog 3C receivers were installed at surface, 3m and 9m along with both 2D and a 3D grid of dynamite sources at 9m depth. Shot points were doubled at each source location in order to acquire data in winter conditions as well as the following summer. Field operations experienced a number of challenges that required immediate and creative solutions. The planting pole design proved cumbersome for the 3m and 9m buried receivers but was kept manageable in weather down to -10oC. When temperatures plunged to -25oC wet muskeg and snow quickly froze to the loading pole cups and couplers and LIS drill hoses started to freeze. Despite these challenges high quality time-lapse PP and PS images were produced that increased high end frequencies by 22 % and 85%, respectively.
Although no production took place between winter and summer acquisitions, it was considered important to test the repeatability of the buried receivers and to test whether the processing flow could compensate for any changes in the seismic response between winter and summer. The decrease in NRMS from raw data through post-stack migration during the AVO-compliant processing steps of the 9m deep receiver data was from 130% to 20% and 130% to 40% for the PP and PS data, respectively. The decrease in NRMS after post-stack migration indicates that the non-repeatable factors were reduced to a level where time-lapse differences could be reliably detected if SAGD production had occurred.
Recording PP and PS reflections that bypass the absorptive near-surface muskeg layer with buried receivers and sources optimizes time-lapse multicomponent seismic monitoring in this area.
Peter's geophysical career started in high school working summers as a jughound on seismic crews. He subsequently earned a degree in geophysics from the University of Calgary. Peter started out with Veritas as a geometry and first break analyst. He gained seismic processing experience with roles as a stratigraphic, structural and depth imaging processor.
He later joined Suncor’s Central Asset Team and stayed for four years with noted success in geophysically challenging reservoirs like the Gething and Cardium formations. He moved to Suncor’s Firebag Asset Team to help answer pressing questions like How can SOR be reduced? and Why is steam here, but not there?
Peter is currently situated at Brion Energy focusing on reservoir characterization and surveillance as a SAGD development and production geophysicist.